Itching or irritation anywhere on the body can cause discomfort. But when it occurs in an area as sensitive as the vagina and vulva (the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening), it can be especially uncomfortable. Most genital itching and irritation isn’t a major concern. But because they can be symptoms of an infection, it’s always a good idea to call your health care provider.
What causes vaginal itching, burning, and irritation?
There are several common causes of vaginal itching, burning, and irritation, including:
- Bacterial vaginosis . It’s normal to have a healthy mix of bacteria in the vagina. But the wrong bacteria growing there can lead to an infection. Besides itching, other symptoms that come with bacterial vaginosis are inflammation, burning, discharge, and a fishy-smelling odor.
- Sexually transmitted disease (STDs). Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomoniasis, and gonorrhea all can cause vaginal/vulvar itching and irritation and other symptoms.
- Yeast infection (vaginal candidiasis). About three out of every four women will develop a yeast infection at some point in their lives. Yeast infections occur when the yeast, candida, grow excessively in the vagina and vulva. Pregnancy, intercourse, antibiotics, and a weakened immune system can all make women more likely to get a yeast infection. In addition to itching and irritation, a yeast infection will produce a thick, white, cheesy discharge.
- Menopause. The drop in estrogen production that occurs at the end of a woman’s reproductive years can cause the vaginal walls to thin and dry out. This can lead to itching and irritation. Thinning of the vaginal walls is also a problem in some women who breastfeed.
- Chemical irritants. A number of chemical substances, including creams, douches, condoms, contraceptive foams, laundry detergents, soaps, scented toilet paper, and fabric softeners can irritate the vagina and vulva.
- Lichen sclerosis . This is a rare condition that causes thin white patches to form on the skin, especially around the vulva. The patches can permanently scar the vaginal area. Postmenopausal women are most likely to develop this condition.
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